Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Three Scaffold scenes - Progression of Dimmesdale In The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne portrays Arthur Dimmesdale as a troubled individual. In him lies the central conflict of the book. Dimmesdale's soul is torn between two opposing forces: his heart, his love for freedom and his passion for Hester Prynne, and his head, his knowledge of Puritanism and its denial of fleshly love. He has committed the sin of adultery but cannot seek divine forgiveness, believing as the Puritans did that sinners received no grace. His dilemma, his struggle to cope with sin, manifests itself in the three scaffold scenes depicted in The Scarlet Letter. These scenes form a progression through which Dimmesdale at first denies, then accepts reluctantly, and finally conquers his sin. During Hester Prynne's three-hour ignominy, Dimmesdale openly denies his sin. Hawthorne introduces Dimmesdale as "a being who felt himself quite astray and at a loss in the pathway of human existence" (64). The author made it obvious that a grim secret lies hidden in the depths of Dimmesdale's soul. This secret, however, does not reveal itself immediately, since Dimmesdale hides it from the closely watching town. In addition, he magnifies his own denial of his sin when he charges Hester to "speak out the name of thy fellow-sinner and fellow-sufferer"(65). By deliberately speaking to Hester as if the sinner were not himself, the pastor makes sure that nobody suspects him. One may also interpret Dimmesdale's speech as a hint to Hester not to name him. He feels he must "add hypocrisy to sin" in order to keep his standing in the town. He thinks that if the town finds out about his sin, they will never forgive him, much like his belief system tells him that God will never forgive him. So great is his relief when he finds that "she will not speak" that he stands in awe of the "wondrous strength and generosity of a woman's heart"(66). Despite an inward wish for his sin to be discovered, Dimmesdale feels better knowing that Hester will not willingly expose him. In this scene in front of the town, Dimmesdale shows his original strength of character, which will diminish along the course of the book. In the middle of the night, seven years after Hester's punishment, Dimmesdale holds a vigil on the scaffold where he finally accepts his sin. The battle within Dimmesdale between "Remorse, which dogged him everywhere" and "Cowardice, which invariably drew him back"(144) leads to a temporary compromise in his midnight vigil.
Monday, January 13, 2020
John Locke had a number of major influences on society in general, but his influences on education have stood the taste of time. His idea of Tabula Rasa, his introduction of empiricism, and idea of the use of all senses are all objectives that are used in schools today. The idea of Tabula Rasa is basically defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"blank slate.Ã¢â¬ Locke believed that everyone is born with a clean mind, a supposed condition that he attributed to the human mind before ideas have been imprinted on it by the reaction of the senses to the exterior world. Ã¢â¬Å"Thus the first capacity of human intellect is that the mind is fitted to receive the impressions made on it; either through the senses by outward objects; or by its own operations when it reflects on them. This is the first step a man makes towards the discovery of anythingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ -John Locke (On Ideas as the Materials of All Our Knowledge) Locke considers the new mind as white paper or wax. It is to be moulded and formed as one pleases. It is up to the teacher to insure that it is formed the correct way and that there is no inate knowledge. This is incorporated into education the grade system. Children start out in kindergarten or pre-school with a blank slate; we start teaching the very basics as if they know nothing. The more information and experience they gather, the further they move along the grade continuum. Locke was considered the founder of British empiricist. He believed that all knowledge comes to us through experience. Ã¢â¬Å"No man's knowledge here can go beyond his experience.Ã¢â¬ Basically, all knowledge has its origin and end in experience, or perception using the senses. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"Experience is twofold, sensation and reflection. From both sources we obtain ideas.Ã¢â¬ Sensation is the perception of external phenomena and reflection is the perception of the operations of the mind itself. This view of empirical thinking is widely used in schools today, especially in the science fields. Concepts and skills are much easier to learn if you can experience them. The empirical way of teaching has brought about the use of the scientific method. First, students must observe a situation and decide if there is a problem. Secondly, make an educated guess, or hypothesis, of what will happen. Next, test this hypothesis. If it is true then draw a conclusion. If not, make a new hypothesis and test again. This is a very valuable way to learn. The students get to experience the whole situation and will in tern retain and understand this information better. Along with using empirical methods of learning, Locke insisted that all the senses be used when learning. It is not enough for a teacher to just stand in front of a classroom and lecture; students are only using one sense (hearing) to try to comprehend the material. Locke feels that you must hear, feel, see, smell, taste everything in order to get the full potential knowledge. This is very relative to today's teachings because we, as teachers, need to appeal to all learning styles. Some students learn better visually, others orally and so on, so we have to hit all area in order to give all students an equal chance to learn. In closing, John Locke was a very significant figure on how we educate children today. He gave us the idea of starting students with a clean slate, the use of the scientific method, and the essential use of all the senses. All these ideas are important aspects of todayÃ¢â¬ s classroom and will most assuredly be a continued use in the future.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Single Fatherhood Single fathers are a minority. They are rare, but growing rapidly as more and more people can fathom a father being able to satisfy the needs of his children. Single fathers are not given sole custody without a fight. A much harder one than what a Mother would have to endure. Normally, custody is given to the mother. Lately, however, fathers are starting to care more about their childrens best interests, and are begining to fight against the sterotypes society has dealt them. Being the child of a single father, I have heard the stories. For 17 years I have heard the stories. But could society have been so blind? No. The courts could have, though. Statistics I have collected showed that even when bothÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Society seems to have a gap between the image of fathers and the actual role of fathers. Now, the fastest growing family unit in the United States are single fathers with sole custody of children under the age of 18. In 1970, there were 393,000 single fathers with sole custody. That number jumped to 1.9 million in 1996. Of these numbers, 48% are divorced, 28% were never married, 18% were seperated, and 5% are widowed. underlying this gradual shift is the attitude more and more people are taking towards men and womens societal roles. Along with being more career oriented, women are starting to feel less guilty about losing custody to their partner, and are finding that they arent always the more suitable parent. At the same time, men are no longer feeling such a strong need to be defined by their job. Also, fathers fear that once they are divorced, they will rarely see their kids, and do not want to be part-time parents. Father-by-default families are another contributing factor to the shift. In this case, the mothers were either not found, or had drug-addiction or alcohol dependency problems, and child welfare agencies sought the fathers. This is most prominent in poverty stricken families. Single father adoption numbers have jumped significantly as well thanks to gay fathers rights groups, and political pressure from the gay community.Show MoreRelatedThe Responsibilities of Fatherhood Essay1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstatistical data rarely differentiate men who are not fathers from those who are fathers. Again, very little information concerning fatherhood and what fathers want is available to people. Written literature on fatherhood and written accounts about fatherhood from men who are fathers are also relatively rare. There is certainty that the environment around fatherhood has increasingly changed when it comes to domestic domain, employment and breadwinning, the structure of the family an d employment (FNFRead MoreIs The Most Socially Consequential Family Trend Of Our Generation?990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslisted social issues. They assert that in 2011 12% of American children living with married parents were poor while 44% of children living in single parent homes experienced poverty (Center for Fathering). It is over 3 times as likely for a child in a single parent home to experience poverty than for a child with married parents. As of 2003 children in single parent homes were twice as likely to commit suicide than children in married parent homes. Other emotional health issues were also reportedRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children s Development3687 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesWorking in education, specifically in the disciplinary area, I have had many meetings with single mothers about behavior issues related to their child. This does not mean that meetings with single fathers never occur, but not as frequently as with single mothers. Now of course there have been several published works that have identified negative behavioral characteristics to be associated with being raised with an absentee father. Those effects include engaging in drug abuse, experiencing educationalRead MoreSocial Policy : Child Support1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages3900: Duty of Parent to Support Child as well as the subsections that follows under this chapter (3901 3902). I will provide an insight on how unemployment and poverty affect non-custodial parents as well as the role strain of child support on fatherhood. Social Policy: Child Support Summary: Family Code Section 3900-3902 (Leginfo.ca.gov) Under Family Code Section 3900, the legislation states that the father and mother of a minor child have an equal responsibility to support their child in theRead MoreObstacles of Fathers in the United States1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesengagement, and obstacles of fathers in the United States. The authors noted that fathers who participated in this survey range between the age of 18 and older. This telephone survey consists of fathers themselves answering questions related to their own fatherhood roles. Further, this article presents the results of the hundreds of American men promoting behaviors, such as agreeing or disagreeing about being involve, cohabitating or married to the child or children mother. This child may be an adoptive orRead MoreAfrican American Daughters And Non Residential Fathers : A Qualitative Exploration9462 Words Ã |Ã 38 PagesAfrican American Daughters and Non-Residential Fathers: A Qualitative Exploration La Toi S Smith Chapter 1 Introduction I spent the majority of my life being raised by a single mother due to my parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorce. Because of my parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorce, my mother stated firmly that I had changed and became a difficult child. I remember rebelling, suffering with low self-esteem and self-worth and blaming myself for the absence of my father. It was not until I was well into womanhood that I found peaceRead MoreDomestic Men Of Mystery By Jillian Tamaki1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages such as in Jillian TamakiÃ¢â¬â¢s comic, Ã¢â¬Å"Domestic Men of Mystery.Ã¢â¬ Her comic features a variety of fathers through the perspective of a daughter, and invites its readers to reflect on and relive potentially uncomfortable memories. Tamaki portrays a fatherhood that invokes bitterness in many Asian American daughters until she disrupts their stream of consciousness in the very last panel of the comic, prompting a re-reading and, perhaps, a re-evaluation of their memories. TamakiÃ¢â¬â¢s widely relatable comicRea d MoreThe Essential Father By Louise Silverstein And Carl Auerbach927 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyou re no longer wanted or needed in 21st-century America. This news may come as a shock with another Father s Day upon us, but it s just some of what Louise Silverstein and Carl Auerbach concluded in a jaw-dropping study on fathers and fatherhood aptly titled Deconstructing the Essential Father. Published in American Psychologist, a journal of the American Psychological Association, the study s radical conclusions further undermine what was once beyond debate - the idea that fathersRead MoreThe Role Of The Father Has Changed Today s Society964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfathers and fatherhood have changed dramatically in the last few decades. In the past fathers assumed the role of the breadwinner and disciplinarians while the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s where in charge of the upbringing of his children. The expectations of fathers as presented by the media is that they become more than breadwinner of the family. As a man become a father he must expect that his life will change such as prioritizing his time and engaging more with his children. If a man is serious about fatherhood they needRead MoreSherman Alexie A Native American Writer Essay1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmost apparent motif is fatherhood. Community and family are the heart of Native American cultures, with the father archetype holding great honor and expectation. However with alcohol abuse, poverty, and school drop rates running rampant through Native American reservations it is no surprise that more and more Native children are growing up in broken homes. In an alarming poll by the Kids Count Data Center, a national census, in 2011 out of 355,000 polled 53% live in single-parent homes. The lack
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 688 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/05/14 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Dracula Essay Did you like this example? Dracula by Bram stoker is a novel that is often associated with the theme of horror and good vs evil but with further reading into the text we discover the theme of gender roles and how women were supposed to act during that time period. Dracula was written in the later part of the nineteenth century which was known as the Victorian era. During the Victorian era, women were seen as virgin and pure but during the course of the reading, we are introduced to a different side of women and throughout the novel were refer to as New woman. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Victorian Women as Depicted in Dracula" essay for you Create order During the Victorian era women was thought of as caring and kind. The author uses two main female characters in the novel to show how women in the Victorian era were expected to act but also how the idea of becoming a new woman is going against everything of that time period. Mina and Lucy are the two main character in the novel and mina is a representation of the Victorian culture and Lucy is of the era of becoming a New Woman.Mina said to Lucy We women have something of the mother in us that makes us rise above smaller matters when the mother-spirit is invoked. (chpt 17. Pg59). At that point she was referring to the nurturing feeling that all women in the culture were to have. This nurturing side of her is also shown when Jonathon came back from his trip and he was in the hospital and she was by his side till he got better. Also, when Lucky would sleep walk and Mina would take care of her not because she had to but because that feeling of taking care of the people you love is a part of who she is. The Victorian women were normally passive toward there significate other which is the caring side of them, Lucy once wrote a letter to Mina expressing to her, that women were to tell everything they know to their husband making them loyal. Although, women of the Victorian era were view as pure and not sexual. However, Lucy had all the characteristics of a woman of that time period but she was also developing the traits of what they called a New Woman, she was starting to questioning tradition. Why cant they let a girl marry three men, or as many as want her, and save all this trouble? (Chpt 5. Pg. 11). Lucys curiosity is coming to live and her need to woman more than one men is a behavior that we generally see in men and their need to have more than one girlfriends. At this point gender roles are being question by the women and they are not becoming more like men but they are taking on an identity for themselves, showing that whatever a man can do, they can do it too. The tradition role of a woman was not described in the reading but from the way that Mina and Lucy talked about it in their writing, we can conclude that the role of a woman was to stay home and make the home look nice. Mina was more of a Victorian woman than Lucy but she too was becoming a New Woman, throughout the book it seems that men were more intelligent than woman but in the case of Mina, she was more on the progression side of things. She learns to do the work of a secretarial to help her husband with his business but jobs like that were usually, jobs that were taking by men because women were to stay home and care for the family. Dr. Seward once told Mina that her brain was a gift and a man would be lucky to have but she was also told to have a brain of a man and a heart of woman. She and Lucy can be seen in the novel to be the progressive side of the Victorian era and breaking down the gender roles that is set, through the was they interacted with the men or their curiosity to learn things and improve their lives.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Welfare Reforms effect on Women and Children The major problem facing poor Women and Children after the adoption of Welfare Reform is, the lack of adequate healthcare for these families. The Women and Children facing this problem are mainly from out-of-wedlock families. It is believed that by removing such benefits it will end such problems like crime, young black men not feeling sense of accomplishment by not working and the bond of community relationships deteriorating. In trying to address this problem I have come up with two different alternative policies to try to tackle the newest welfare reform policy and adjust it in a way that will benefit families especially Women and Children as well as the tax payers of America. My firstÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is going to have and is already having disastrous effects on the American population. Already more than half of AFDC, Medicaid, food stamps, are attributable to families involved in teen birth situations. We are spending more to help these families which still is not making our situation better because most of the families are still broke in slang term for not having any cash. They are unable to support our economy financially because they cant support themselves which is have a chain effect on society. At least if these families and children did not have to worry about the lack of health care, than it would be a burden lifted of their chest to look for work and attend the free Families and Mentoring program that should be created. The free Families Health and Mentoring Program, which would be paid for mainly by the government, will be the way out for many of these young mothers, father, and families to get ahead in life. A lot of the problem with the out-of-wedlock situations are those in the poor, urban setting. Clearly, it is also racially inclined. That is a whole other subject. Not to get off on a tangent, this program will enrich the lives of these families by giving them the support and family structure that some of them lacked growi ng up. This program will be created to help develop individuals with the skills to go out into our workforce and find a job. Although there are not enough jobsShow MoreRelatedWelfare Reform : The Welfare System1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWelfare Reform What would happen if the government made changes to the welfare system? There are approximately 110,489,000 of Americans on welfare. Many people benefit from what the system has to offer: food stamps, housing, health insurance, day care, and unemployment. Taxpayers often argue that the individuals who benefit from the system, abuse the system; however, this is not entirely true. Many of the people who receive benefits really and truly need the help. Even though some people believeRead MoreWelfare Reform And The Welfare System2031 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages All throughout history welfare services have been available to the general public. While these benefits have changed over time, the basic intentions of the welfare system has stayed the same. The welfare system provides benefits and monetary assistance to those who qualify. Different acts over the past two hundred years have been amended in order to try to help the poor, and while not all have been practical and successful, many programs have indeed done an outstanding job in aiding those in needRead MoreWelfare Reform3205 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesWelfare Reform: A Permanent Solution or a Temporary Band-Aid? Welfare: handouts to the lazy, or a helping hand to those facing hard times? The debate continues, even in the face of sweeping welfare reform, which, for all of its sound and fury, has not helped or changed much. Whats wrong with welfare and how can we fix it? This is not a simple question, and there is no simple answer. However, one thing remains eminently clear. Welfare desperately needs to change. But where are we now? Are weRead MoreWelfare Reform Essay801 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs welfare a permanent solution or a temporary fix to a monumental epidemic in society today? Congress has implemented welfare reform legislation that simply has not helped or changed much. The question regarding the welfare system remains the same. What is wrong with welfare and how can it be fixed? This is not a simple question and does not have a simple answer. However, one thing is extremely clear; welfare is not working and desperately needs to change. The current welfare system is unfair toRead Mor eWelfare Reform Essays584 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWelfare Reform Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) replaced AFDC, ending some Federal responsibility to welfare assistance. States operate their own programs; determine eligibility services to be provided to needy families, within Federal guidelines. The Federal government cannot regulate the conduct of states except to a few requirements, and states have a wide latitude in administering the programRead More Welfare Reform Essay2746 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWelfare Reform The U.S. Congress kicked off welfare reform nationwide last October with the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, heralding a new era in which welfare recipients are required to look for work as a condition of benefits. http://www.detnews.com/1997/newsx/welfare/rules/rules.htm. Originally, the welfare system was created to help poor men, women, and children who are in need of financial and medical assistance. Over the years, welfare has becomeRead MoreWelfare Reform: A Matter of Public Debate2503 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesWelfare reform has been a matter of public debate for decades. Welfare is a result of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s values to support oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fellow man, but with the stark decline of the economy every state is feeling pressure and looking for new ways to save money. This pressure is manifesting as changes to welfare that are theorized to improve the quality of life for poor families, create a stronger workforce, and save taxpayers money. Th eory, however, is one thing, and practice is definitely another. This paper willRead MoreWelfare Reform Essay1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdebated about a systematical program called welfare. Some perceive it as dead weight to our nation and they question whether the programs offered are helping the community. As taxpayers, the American populous funds contribute to welfare for others. Due to the large number of people who receive government assistance, it is not that simple to monitor every individual. However, I propose that welfare should be reformed. Society is abusing the access to social welfare and to prevent the downfall sure to comeRead MoreWelfare Reform Essay1040 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWelfare has been around for than six decades. Since the beginning of its creation people have question whether the programs offered is helping the community. As American taxpayers, your funds contribute to welfare for others. Due to the large number of members who receives government assistan ts, it is not that simple to monitor every individual. But, I propose that welfare should be reformed. Society is abusing the access to social welfare and to change the downfall sure to come, the governmentRead MoreWelfare Reform : Social Welfare Policy1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Social Welfare Policy Social Welfare Policy Analysis Eric Dean University of Arkansas Introduction Several states have recently begun to enact legislation that requires welfare recipients to submit to drug tests before they are eligible to receive any public assistance. The purpose of mandatory drug testing is to prevent the potential abuse of taxpayer money, help individuals with drug problems, and ensure that public money is not subsidizing drug habits (Wincup, 2014). While
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Forces Operation In Market Of The Economy? Answer: Introducation The term economy means the monetary and financial condition of a geographical location, determined in general by the mutual interaction of the demand and supply forces operation in the market of the economy. The demand and supply forces are concerned with the goods and services that are mostly produced in the economy. Generally, the goods and services that are produced in the economy can be accounted for and falls under the tax net and regulatory domain of the economy (Mankiw, 2014). Black Economy: The goods and services, which come under the purview of the taxation regulation of an economy, comprise of what is known as the white economy. However, few goods and services produced, in the economy fall outside the regulatory purview of the country and are not accounted for. These productive activities do not fall in the taxation net of the economy and they form the black economy of that country. The black economy is said to prosper at the cost of the governing authority of the economy and its size varies from country to country (Kirchgssner, 2017). However, not all the activities falling under the domain of black economy may be necessarily illegal though all the illegal productive activities by default fall in this category. For example, the cash payment to a construction worker by a legalized company without any account of the payment, though not illegal, may fall under the purview of black economy. Again, the activities like smuggling, bribing, tax evading activities being illegal also comprise the black economy of a country (Schneider Enste, 2013). Shared Economy: From the beginning of the existence of society, the economic patterns have undergone sufficient dynamics and changes, with various economic frameworks coming into existence over time. One such economic framework, which has been a subject of substantial speculation among economists and policy makers, in the contemporary period, is that of the framework of shared economy. The shared economy refers to the economic system in which the individuals can borrow or share the assets, which are already owned by some other individuals. The term asset here means goods and services and in this framework, these assets have the provision to be shared by private individuals, in exchange of monetary fees or in free of cost, depending upon the situation and the nature of asset, which is being shared (Heinrichs, 2013). The objective and the economic intuition behind this economic model is that by facilitating sharing of the assets, the economy can move towards a higher efficiency level. The underutilized asset with someone can be of usage to another individual who is in need of that asset but is deprived of it and this can be done in lieu of money. The underlying economic objective behind this shared economy concept is the maximization of the overall welfare of the economy as a whole. The shared economic model has been in existence in real global scenario for quite some time and there are many evidences of its operation. With the advent of new technologies and innovations facilitating global communications, this economic framework is projected to make more significance in the global scenario and it can become a dominant economic framework of operation in the near future (Hamari, Sjklint Ukkonen, 2016). The above section discussed about the shared economy framework and the features of that conceptual framework. Over the years, the shared economy model has gained significant attention all over the world, due to its unique conceptual construct and objective of overall welfare maximization. The implementation of this model has been seen in many countries till now an there are many organizations (mainly commercial) who are coming under the domain of the shared economy business model, with time as the model shows potential to be successful if implemented correctly (Mhlmann, 2015). However, not all commercial organizations are much in favor of this shared economic model as they do not tend to believe on the feasibility and profitability of sharing privately owned asset. These commercial organizations tend to remain under the domain of more of the traditional economic business models, which have been prevailing for a considerable amount of time. The traditional economic models, unlike thos e of the shared economy model, do not allow sharing of privately owned goods and services. According to these frameworks, the assets are only allowed to be enjoyed by the individuals who own these assets and have paid for availing these facilities (Schor, 2016). The assignment, in this portion tries to put forward the different aspects of both the conceptual frameworks of the shared economy model and the traditional models. In this part the assignment tries to analyze how the respective characteristics of these economic constructs, which are mainly countering one another, have their implications on the different commercial enterprises in the real case scenarios. To study the implications of these models in real economic situations, the assignment takes into account two real commercial organizations from the same industry, operating in the same country that is under the same taxing and regulatory framework (Orsi, 2013). The two enterprises taken are Airbnb and Four Seasons Hotel, both being significantly popular names in the hospitality and accommodating industry. The country chosen for study purpose is Australia and both the enterprises mentioned above have been very much into operation in the commercial markets of the country for last few y ears (Cohen Kietzmann, 2014). While Airbnb is known to be a company operating under the framework of the shared economy business model, Four Seasons Hotel operates in a more traditional kind of economic framework, their respective structures and prospects being discussed in the following sections. Airbnb, as a hospitality and accommodation facilitator, has been in the global market scenario since 2006 and has gained significant popularity in the market for the companys unique nature of service provided. The enterprise is not the owner of any lodging facility. It is an online facility which allows people to rent or to lease out lodgings all over the world. In simpler words, Airbnb enables those people who have their own lodgings and want to lease or share their lodgings with others and earn money in return, to do the same. Under this service, people can rent home stays, hostels, hotel and rooms according to their needs and the people with spare accommodating provisions can utilize their unused assets by sharing them in exchange of monetary fees, thereby making the situation profitable for both the parties on the consumption and the production sides (Airbnb.co.in, 2017). The enterprise acts as a broker and in turn receives commissions as percentage of the fees for every booking, from both the demand and the supply sides. At present, the company is operating in almost all of the major developed and many commercially developing countries, in their prime locations. Specifically 191 countries and nearly 65000 cities come under the range of operation of Airbnb and the enterprise has a whopping number of 3,000,000 accommodating facilities, listed under its domain, from all over the world. With a clientele comprising of more than 150,000,000 users and still expanding, Airbnb shows huge potential of even more expansion in the future due to the one of a kind type of service structure of the company, which increases the convenience of travelling to new places and find lodging in the new age global economy. The current valuation of the company is nearly $30 billion (Gassmann, Frankenberger Csik, 2014). From the above discussion, it is clearly evident that the operating structure of Airbnb, as a commercial enterprise is very much similar to that of the operating framework as suggested in the economic business model. Airbnb Australia, offers parties having the spare housing facilities and looking for accommodations to interact on an online platform and do the deal as per their requirement and convenience. This indicates towards the trend of a sharing economy framework (Zervas, Proserpio Byers, 2014). The private individuals, who have under-utilized assets, under the domain of this company, can share these assets with those who are deprived of these assets and are in need for these facilities, in exchange of monetary fees. The mode of operation of the commercial enterprise is therefore mandatorily similar to what the shared economic business framework suggests. The objective of the company, as a commercial organization, is to maximize the welfare of the clientele as a whole by facili tating a more uniform and efficient allocation of the scare assets, the assets being accommodation facilities in this case (Guttentag, 2015). The company has gained positive attention of huge number of people all over the world and is steadily becoming a strong alternative to many of the predominantly existing hospitality and accommodating market players. By bringing in its domain the common households as players in the supply side, the company is increasing the range of the geographical domain of their operation and is removing traditional hurdles, especially location hurdles that were previously faced by the customers who wanted to seek temporary lodging in non-commercial places per se. The projected valuation of the company in Australia, as well as in the global scenario is expected to increase significantly with more and more people becoming accustomed to the usage of internet and online transaction systems (Bocken Short, 2016). However, there has been significant concern among the monetary authorities of Australia regarding the taxing framework of the company. The services provided by the company being varied and not purely commercial on nature, there are many avenues for the enterprise to reduce their tax burden. The operational method of the company being purely online, this becomes even easier on part of the enterprise (McNamara, 2015). It has been seen that all the bookings that is taken by the company for Australia is not accounted in Airbnb Australia but is accounted under Airbnb Ireland, even though the service providers are located in Australia and the customers are also seeking lodging in the same country. The company, to reduce the tax burden that has to be borne by Airbnb for the transaction fees it charges, has specifically done this, as being worried by the governing and monetary authorities of the country. The tax regulation of Ireland being more favorable to the enterprise than that of Austra lia, the company has been accounting all their monetary activities under the taxing regulation of Ireland, which may be a cause of concern for the Australian Government (Edelman Geradin, 2015). However, in spite of these limitations, the company is expanding in accommodating business and the overall success of the company in a short time gives robust support in favor of existence of the shared economy model in the real global scenario and argues in favor of the operational structure of the model and its practicality. However, there are many counter examples of enterprises operating in the same accommodating industry as that of Airbnb in Australia, but in a more traditional economic framework. One such example is the Four Seasons Hotels. The hospitality chain, being a global player, also has significant share of operation in the country. With average annual revenue of $4billion and operating more than hundred hotels all over the world, this chain of hospitality service has also been emerging as an eminent player in the same market as that of the enterprise, Airbnb (Fourseasons.com, 2017). The operating mechanism of the Four Season Hotels, Australia, though in the same market and at the same period of existence like that of Airbnb, is not anywhere near the conceptual framework of the shared economy business model. Instead of that, the company follows a more traditional economic model of operations. The services provided by the enterprise cannot be shared among the private individuals of a country in exchange of monetary fares (Tribe, 2015). Customers of the services provided by the company, paying for the services are only eligible to enjoy the facilities and the company does not allow them to share these facilities with any third party person. This mode of operation is a clear indication of the organization operating under the domain of the traditional economic framework for business and their success validates the feasibility and applicability of the traditional economic models in the contemporary global business scenarios (Fourseasons.com, 2017). The company, however, has been facing many criticisms regarding the pricing strategies that the company has been using in the country. The higher than standard prices, that are being charged by the Four Seasons Hotel, for providing what is claimed by them to be premium service and in prime commercial and holiday locations, create a burden on the clientele who wants to avail their services. The taxing structure of the company, however, appears to be more transparent than the previously discussed commercial enterprise. The above discussion, therefore, shows that the economic models, the shared economy model as well as the traditional economy model, if implemented and operated in an appropriate manner, can be profitable for the commercial enterprises as both of them are highly feasible in the contemporary global business situations (Nagle, Hogan Zale, 2016). The problem of black economy, as discussed in the first section of this assignment, has been a consistent and increasing problem all over the world, becoming a cause of concern for the governing authorities and the policy planners of almost all the countries around the world. With the recent expansion of the shared economic model, the problem has been aggravated as the model, by default gives its users the avenues to keep their activities outside the purview of the taxing regulations of the countries. The Treasury in the Black Economy Taskforce of Australia, in its Interim Report has suggested several reforms and recommendations, which can be implemented to address the problem of black economy (Treasury.gov.au, 2017). Among these, the ones with potential to reduce the contribution of the shared economic framework, in the formation of black economy, are discussed as follows: Reduction of cash payment and cash transactions in an overall manner and introduction of non-cash payment systems can significantly reduce the burden of black economy by increasing the accountability of the transactions. The firms with transparent and good records of taxation should only be eligible to the procurement opportunities as provided by the Government of Australia. The technologies and innovations, which suppress sales, should not be allowed to be in operation. Incentives should be given to the small enterprises, incorporating the non-cash methods of payments and transactions, such that the other enterprises also get motivated and come in the purview of these types of non-cash operational framework, thereby, decreasing the scope of expansion of the black economy in the country. The tax payment methods should also be expanded and should be made fit for the current economic conditions (Williams, 2014). The integrity of registration of businesses should also be enhanced and proper modernizations have to be done in this aspect to make the business scenario of the country run efficiently. Proper awareness regarding the taxation framework of the country, should be generated, especially among the new and the small firms so as to make the tax structure and procurement of taxes easy. The threshold of GST has to be lowered to reduce defaulting in the taxation frameworks. The overall cash transactions should be subjected to limitations after a certain level. The regulatory frameworks should be relaxed a little for the small companies to facilitate their growth and to make them more competent in the global business market (Buehn Schneider, 2012). These recommendations as suggested by the Interim Report, if implemented correctly by the relevant governing authorities, can prove to be significantly beneficial to reduce the contribution of the shared economic framework in the creation of black economy burden for the country in the long run. References Airbnb.co.in. (2017).Vacation Rentals, Homes, Experiences Places - Airbnb.Airbnb. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from https://www.airbnb.co.in/ Bocken, N. M. P., Short, S. W. (2016). Towards a sufficiency-driven business model: Experiences and opportunities.Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions,18, 41-61. Buehn, A., Schneider, F. (2012). Shadow economies around the world: novel insights, accepted knowledge, and new estimates.International Tax and Public Finance,19(1), 139-171. Cohen, B., Kietzmann, J. (2014). Ride on! Mobility business models for the sharing economy.Organization Environment,27(3), 279-296. Edelman, B. G., Geradin, D. (2015). Efficiencies and regulatory shortcuts: How should we regulate companies like Airbnb and Uber.Stan. Tech. L. Rev.,19, 293. Fourseasons.com. (2017). Retrieved 8 September 2017, from https://www.fourseasons.com/Sydney/SydneyGetaway Gassmann, O., Frankenberger, K., Csik, M. (2014).The business model navigator: 55 models that will revolutionise your business. Pearson UK. Guttentag, D. (2015). Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector.Current issues in Tourism,18(12), 1192-1217. Hamari, J., Sjklint, M., Ukkonen, A. (2016). The sharing economy: Why people participate in collaborative consumption.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,67(9), 2047-2059. Heinrichs, H. (2013). Sharing economy: a potential new pathway to sustainability.Gaia,22(4), 228. Kirchgssner, G. (2017). On estimating the size of the shadow economy.German Economic Review,18(1), 99-111. Mankiw, N. G. (2014).Essentials of economics. Cengage learning. McNamara, B. (2015). Airbnb: A not-so-safe resting place.J. on Telecomm. High Tech. L.,13, 149. Mhlmann, M. (2015). Collaborative consumption: determinants of satisfaction and the likelihood of using a sharing economy option again.Journal of Consumer Behaviour,14(3), 193-207. Nagle, T. T., Hogan, J., Zale, J. (2016).The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing: New International Edition. Routledge. Orsi, J. (2013). The sharing economy just got real.Shareable. net. Schneider, F., Enste, D. H. (2013).The shadow economy: An international survey. Cambridge University Press. 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Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Othello By Shakespeare "Good, evil, or misunderstood." A character paper on Othello, by Shakespeare It seems fascinating that an interesting and clever character in a story, would be the villain, such is the case in Othello, by Shakespeare. As a moor, Othello has faced many challenges and prejudices throughout his life. When he becomes a soldier of high stature and honor, and weds, he receives the jealousy and envy of Iago, the villain. The story revolves around the mischievous acts of Iago, his evil plans of making himself better than Othello. Iago conceives a plan of making Othello doubtful and unsure about his wife, Desdemona. At first, Iago's lies have no effect on Othello, but thru his relentlessness, Othello finally believes him. Othello, armed with anger and frustration, succeeds in killing her. Showing no pity for his beloved wife, he kills her, without listening to her side and story. Realizing he has been deceived by Iago, Othello in return kills himself. The true tragedy of the play consists of Othello not realizing how unnecessary his death and his wife's. The person, least expected to succeed and triumph in all his actions, was Iago. This play highlights the case of evil winning against good, to some perspectives. Throughout the entire story he appears, at least in every page, few pages are without him, either physically or spoken of. Being the most complex character, Iago, himself is a mysterious person. Many have come to question, why Othello is not called Iago, a play of his triumph over making other people's lives miserable. A simple answer can not be given to a difficult question, such as this. Perhaps the reason Iago, plays an extremely big part in the play, is because it symbolizes how evil plays a role in everyday life, it can be the deciding factor in forcing people to make the right, or in this case, the wrong choice. Iago, plays the major part of the instigator. He conceives and acts upon his mischievous plans. Although his deeds do not benefit him, he goes out of his way to make sure they go accordingly. After reading Othello, some people debate over who is to blame for Othello's actions. In my opinion, Iago could be no more to blame than if he was a bystander. Othello was not forced into believing everything Iago said. Othello should be held responsible for all of his deeds. Murdering his wife, was at will, even though Iago may have had a part in his decision, he certainly did not have a part in the murder. Through all his actions, Iago can not be ultimately blamed for the deaths. The green-eyed monster, can not be pictured to be Iago, but can be seen as Othello, within him the monster released itself and murdered Desdemona. An understatement would be for Iago to be the triumphant villain, he instead is the best villain, in that his punishment is left for us to decide. For my choice as the punishment would be that there is none. Iago would conceive another unbelievable, yet successful lie for Cassio, and be set free. Maybe in the future of Iago's character, we can imagine that he slips and makes a mistake, then he can be persecuted for all his wrong doing. Until then, for my imagination he is free and running around conspicuously among the crowd. Iago, is the kind of person, that never let his childhood go, in my opinion he just wanted to spice things up and see what he could get away with. But we can also picture a person who cared for nothing else than himself, clearly visualized when he murders his wife, to escape getting caught. Although, even if Emilia was to confess Iago's deeds, being punished would still be a question presented to the reader.